Skill Acquisition

Search
Go

Discussion Topic

Return to Forum List
This thread has been locked
Messages 1 - 20 of total 21 in this topic << First  |  < Previous  |  Show All  |  Next >  |  Last >>
Marlow

Sport climber
OSLO
Topic Author's Original Post - Jul 28, 2013 - 10:51am PT
The Dreyfus+ model for Skill Acquisition "is based on four binary qualities:

• Recollection (non-situational or situational)
• Recognition (decomposed or holistic)
• Decision (analytical or intuitive)
• Awareness (monitoring or absorbed)

This leads to five roles+:

1. Novice
• Follows rules.
• Spesific rules for spesific circumstances.
• No modifiers.
• “Context free”.
• Don’t feel responsible for other than following the rule

2. Advanced beginner
• New situational elements are identified
• Rules begin to be applied to related conditions
• Decisions still are made by rule application
• Does not experience personal responsibility

3. Competence
• Numbers of rules becomes excessive
• Learn organizing principles or “perspectives”
• Perspectives permit assorting information by relevance
• The experience of responsibility arises from active decision-making

4. Proficiency
• Skilled intuitive diagnosis
• Approach to problem molded by perspectives arising from multiple real world experiences
• Holistic similarity recognition
• Learner uses intuition to realize what is happening
• Conscious decision-making and rules used to formulate plan

5. Expertise
• Don’t make decisions
• Don’t solve problams
• Do what works
• No decomposition of situation into discrete elements
• Pattern recognition extends to plan as well as diagnosis"

6. Mastery (+)
• Expertise and
• Expert teacher

Marlow

Sport climber
OSLO
Topic Author's Reply - Jul 28, 2013 - 10:52am PT
In pursuit of the Expert Pedagogue

"Berliner has been searching for expert pedagogues. They are comparing expert and experienced teachers with novice or ordinary teachers, or postulants (personnel with subject matter skills and experience, and a desire to change careers and teach in public schools). One of the main differences between these categories of teachers is that novices showed lack of familiarity with well-practiced routines.


Why study experts? There are 7 reasons:

 Expert performance provides us with a temporary pedagogical theory, a temporary scaffolding from which novices may learn.

 Experts provide exemplary performances (modeling) from which we can learn.

 It promotes thinking about the nature of expert systems in pedagogy: a wide range of instructional outcomes to choose from and some decision rules about when to use these options (appropriateness of strategies)

 Master teachers have a great impact upon their novices, but they often lack the ability to articulate the basis for their expertise and skill. Their knowledge is in their actions, and those actions are automated procedures.

 Berliner wants to influence current policy in states where teaching certificates are awarded to SMEs with no teaching experience, or where the criteria for selecting and rewarding master teachers is vague.

 He wants to boost professional pride, because other fields respect the expertise of their bridge players, chess players, or physicists, but the same doesn't happen with teachers.


There are problems in studying expertise:

 Methodological problems: think-aloud protocols, stimulated recall protocols, etc. He's not too fond of them.

 We need to find criteria for identifying expert teachers and they need to decide on the criteria for the judges.

 Number of years of experience is not the same as level of expertise.

 We need to know what domains of knowledge are used by expert teachers in accomplishing their tasks. In physics, there's a correspondence between knowledge and problem-solving application of that knowledge. In teaching, there are two areas: subject matter knowledge and classroom management. These are integrated by a good teacher. (see Gelman & Greeno - they distinguish between conceptual competence, or knowing "what" vs. procedural competence, or knowing "how".)


Studying expert teachers - findings:

 The knowledge of classroom management, pace, level of intellectuality, affect, work orientation, influences the classroom's organization and management, and is the basis for transforming subject matter into knowledge. This is often tacit, and is worthy of being called expert knowledge in other fields.

 Expert teachers make inferences about classroom situations; they don't just literally report what they see. They apply domain-specific knowledge to make sense of the classroom they are viewing.

 As with experts in other fields, they categorize problems at some kind of higher level, not just by the surface characteristics given in the problem. (see Chi & Bassok.)

 Experts have extraordinarily fast and accurate pattern recognition capabilities, like schema instantiations in chess experts. This reduces cognitive loading.

 Expert teachers are more opportunistic and creative in the use of equipment than novices.

 Experts have better metacognitive or self-regulatory capabilities.

 Experts are better able to anticipate problem situations and generate contingency plans than novices.


Conclusions:

Berliner considers the expert teaching of Ms. Patrick to be a much more monumental feat than conducting a symphony orchestra. He also thinks that the cognitive processes required for classifying classroom problems and positing solutions are the same for the experienced physicist and the experienced teacher. It's the ability to solve problems in ill-structured domains. And lastly, domain-specific knowledge is honored in every profession except education. He feels that the study of expert teachers will lead to some more codifiable knowledge than we already possess."
Marlow

Sport climber
OSLO
Topic Author's Reply - Jul 28, 2013 - 10:52am PT
"Donald Schön introduced several important organizing concepts to a wide range of applied fields:

• The idea of a "generative metaphor", figurative descriptions of social situations, usually implicit and even semi-conscious but that shape the way problems are tackled, for example seeing a troubled inner-city neighborhood as urban "blight" and, hence, taking steps rooted in the idea of disease.
• "Learning systems" - Schön was a pioneer of studies aimed at exploring the possibility of learning at the supra-individual level
• Reflective practice inquiry - Schön's seminal 1983 book, The Reflective Practitioner, challenged practitioners to reconsider the role of technical knowledge versus "artistry" in developing professional excellence. The concept most notably affected study of teacher education, health professions and architectural design.
• Frame reflection - the title of a 1994 book co-authored with MIT colleague Martin Rein, prescribed critical shared reconstruction of "frames" of social problems which are otherwise taken for granted and advocated system-level learning to find solutions for "intractable policy controversies."

Much of his later and more influential work related to reflection in practice and the concept of learning systems. He (along with Chris Argyris) maintained that organizations and individuals should be flexible and should incorporate lessons learned throughout their lifespans, known as organizational learning. His interest and involvement in jazz music inspired him to teach the concept of improvisation and 'thinking on one's feet', and that through a feedback loop of experience, learning and practice, we can continually improve our work (whether educational or not) and become a 'reflective practitioner'. Thus, the work of Schön fits with and extends to the realm of many fields of practice, key twentieth century theories of education, like experiential education and the work of many of its most important theorists, namely John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, Carl Rogers and David A. Kolb.

Schön believed that people and organizations should be flexible and incorporate their life experiences and lessons learned throughout their life. This is also known as Organizational learning (Fulmer, 1994). Organizational learning is based on two things. The first being single–loop learning and the second being double–loop learning. The former refers to the process that occurs when organizations adjust their operations to keep apace with changing market conditions. And then the latter refers to not just adjusting to the market, but also to the creation of new and better ways of achieving business goals (Fulmer, 1994).

http://the-tech.mit.edu/~richmond/professional/jplschon.pdf"
Marlow

Sport climber
OSLO
Topic Author's Reply - Jul 28, 2013 - 10:52am PT
And one for the ten-masters:


Shuhari (Kanji: 守破離 Hiragana: しゅはり) is a Japanese martial art concept, and describes the stages of learning to mastery. It is sometimes applied to other Japanese disciplines, such as Go.

Shuhari roughly translates to "first learn, then detach, and finally transcend."

• shu (守) "protect", "obey" — traditional wisdom — learning fundamentals, techniques, heuristics, proverbs

• ha (破) "detach", "digress" — breaking with tradition — detachment from the illusions of self

• ri (離) "leave", "separate" — transcendence — there are no techniques or proverbs, all moves are natural, becoming one with spirit alone without clinging to forms; transcending the physical


Aikido master Endō Seishirō shihan stated:

"It is known that, when we learn or train in something, we pass through the stages of shu, ha, and ri. These stages are explained as follows. In shu, we repeat the forms and discipline ourselves so that our bodies absorb the forms that our forbearers created. We remain faithful to the forms with no deviation. Next, in the stage of ha, once we have disciplined ourselves to acquire the forms and movements, we make innovations. In this process the forms may be broken and discarded. Finally, in ri, we completely depart from the forms, open the door to creative technique, and arrive in a place where we act in accordance with what our heart/mind desires, unhindered while not overstepping laws."
FRUMY

Trad climber
Bishop,CA
Jul 28, 2013 - 11:13am PT
I am an American, when I want to acquisition something I don't need no steps.

I put my head down & do it.

Or I go to the store & by it.

But I sure as hell don't need some idiots steps to know what I already know.

If you want to get good at something you need to work your as_ off.
Marlow

Sport climber
OSLO
Topic Author's Reply - Jul 28, 2013 - 11:19am PT
FRUMY

Hard work is needed. Thinking/reflection doesn't hurt and is often an important part of learning.
Marlow

Sport climber
OSLO
Topic Author's Reply - Jul 28, 2013 - 11:24am PT
Randisi

There's a lot that a dog knows, but I don't know what. I'm no dog expert... ;o)
Marlow

Sport climber
OSLO
Topic Author's Reply - Jul 28, 2013 - 11:33am PT
DMT

Yes, some dogs are surely experts when it comes to the preferences of their master. So who's in reality the master?
phylp

Trad climber
Millbrae, CA
Jul 28, 2013 - 12:20pm PT
I LOVE your posts like this Marlow!
Marlow

Sport climber
OSLO
Topic Author's Reply - Jul 28, 2013 - 12:24pm PT
Thanks Phylp!
apogee

climber
Technically expert, safe belayer, can lead if easy
Jul 28, 2013 - 12:54pm PT
Unconscious incompetence (Don't know what you don't know)
vvvvv
Conscious incompetence (Awareness of knowledge/skill deficits)
vvvvv
Conscious competence (Can perform tasks with conscious thought & intent)
vvvvv
Unconscious competence (Task/skill performance with little thought. Mastery.)
Marlow

Sport climber
OSLO
Topic Author's Reply - Jul 28, 2013 - 12:55pm PT
A great addition Apogee.
TrundleBum

Trad climber
Las Vegas
Jul 28, 2013 - 02:35pm PT
This is all way to cerebral for me.

When I worked for Outward Bound we used the principal that learning would generally advance the best with a proper (approx 50/50) blend of:
1. Experiential learning
2. Academic learning

That's about as far as I could ever get in processing it all.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Number of years of experience is not the same as level of expertise.

I always loved the joke where you hold up all your fingers but bend over three or four to look like they were cut off and bellow:

"Don't tell me how to do carpentry. I have been doing it for ten, count them, ten years!"

Marlow

Sport climber
OSLO
Topic Author's Reply - Jul 28, 2013 - 02:41pm PT
TrundleBum

If it's just silly walk to you, that' ok.

[Click to View YouTube Video]
FRUMY

Trad climber
Bishop,CA
Jul 28, 2013 - 04:56pm PT
Dogs know you got to work hard - find a good teacher - & most important if you are thinking you haven't worked hard enough & you are going to fail.

Ain't nothing written up there that a dog isn't born knowing.

Bark!
TrundleBum

Trad climber
Las Vegas
Jul 29, 2013 - 12:02am PT

@ Marlow:
Not being a big Python fan, it's not surprising I have never seen that skit. TFPU I howled.

At very first glance I thought maybe you had posted a link to:
[Click to View YouTube Video]
phylp

Trad climber
Millbrae, CA
Jul 29, 2013 - 12:20am PT
This is all way to cerebral for me.

It certainly is cerebral.
But I find that examining new cerebral models causes me to challenge my ingrained patterns, "taken for granted" assumptions, and accepted dogma "knowledge".

Then you can ask yourself, is there truth in this. And if you find something that feels new and different and also true, it can have value. If not existential value, then at least operational, pragmatic value. Or the basis of a set of new self-experiments.

Phyl
Marlow

Sport climber
OSLO
Topic Author's Reply - Sep 2, 2013 - 01:07pm PT
Techne

"Techne" is a term, etymologically derived from the Greek word τέχνη (Ancient Greek: [tékʰnɛː], Modern Greek: [ˈtexni]), that is often translated as "craftsmanship", "craft", or "art".

Techne is a term in philosophy which resembles epistēmē in the implication of knowledge of principles, although techne differs in that its intent is making or doing as opposed to disinterested understanding.

As an activity, techne is concrete, variable, and context-dependent. As one observer has argued, techne "was not concerned with the necessity and eternal a priori truths of the cosmos, nor with the a posteriori contingencies and exigencies of ethics and politics. [...] Moreover, this was a kind of knowledge associated with people who were bound to necessity. That is, techne was chiefly operative in the domestic sphere, in farming and slavery, and not in the free realm of the Greek polis."

Aristotle saw it as representative of the imperfection of human imitation of nature. For the ancient Greeks, it signified all the mechanic arts, including medicine and music. The English aphorism, "gentlemen don’t work with their hands", is said to have originated in ancient Greece in relation to their cynical view on the arts. Due to this view, it was only fitted for the lower class while the upper class practiced the liberal arts of 'free' men (Dorter 1973).

Socrates also compliments techne only when it was used in the context of epistēmē. Epistēmē sometimes means knowing how to do something in a craft-like way. The craft-like knowledge is called a technê. It is most useful when the knowledge is practically applied, rather than theoretically or aesthetically applied. For the ancient Greeks, when techne appears as art, it is most often viewed negatively, whereas when used as a craft it is viewed positively because a craft is the practical application of an art, rather than art as an end in itself. In The Republic, written by Plato, the knowledge of forms "is the indispensable basis for the philosophers' craft of ruling in the city" (Stanford 2003).

Wikipedia


“To identify technology’s essence as revealing, Heidegger expands techné to encompass poiesis and episteme, Greek words that belong to the domain of revealing (aletheia) and, hence, have something to do with engendering and truth. In doing so, Heidegger denies the initial meaning of techné as making, whose social implications become the basis of the Frankfurt School’s critique of technology, insisting instead its fundamental imbrication with poiesis and episteme, in order to foreground what Heidegger describes as technology’s essential relation to a revealing (aletheia). First, techné is related to poiesis because before it is a making, it is a bringing-forth. Poiesis, the Greek word from which we get the word poetry, names that which brings-something-forth into presence, or that which renders the potentiality of the not-yet into explicit actuality. Hence, any activity or action which is the cause of a thing in the sense of bringing-something into presence belongs to poiesis. Second, techné-as-poiesis is linked to episteme (knowledge/science) not only because every rational design is enabled by a certain knowledge, but also because what is brought-forth, what is disclosed, is a truth. So, to return to our example, a bridge is a kind of poiesis because it is a bringing-forth of man’s artificial fabrications of nature (physis), in which the materialization of ends embodied in the finished bridge displays the truth of man’s rational power. Thus, stitching together techné, poesis and episteme, that is to say, linking the power of making (techné) as primarily a mode of bringing-forth (poiesis), in which what is revealed is truth (episteme), Heidegger takes us away from the conventional and instrumentalist definition of technology as “a means to an end” toward an idea of technology as an originary form of truth-revealing, a disclosing of worlds, hence, a form of worlding. If we follow Heidegger’s reformulation of technology as a mode of revealing (aletheia), technology, in its essence, can be said to be poetic because it is a bringing-forth, whose causality, like poetry, “let[s]what is not yet present [to] arrive into presencing,” into the order of the presence or the real (QT, 293). This is what constitutes the original, essential meaning of technology. For if I understand Heidegger correctly, the essence of technology, then, is the poetic process of bringing something forth into presence and, as a mode of revealing, “frames” a world that is unfolded or unconcealed in the process.

Now, in its modality as revealing, the essence of technology is what Heidegger calls “enframing” [Ge-stell]. But, what is important is that the fundamental specificity of technology in Heidegger – a mode of revealing as enframing which pulls together techné, poiesis, and episteme – is nothing technological, it does not belong to the domain of the machine or the mechanical. Rather, “enframing” names the fundamental, ontological process of “revealing.” Hence, “to enframe“ refers to the process of an “opening up“ as a “gathering together of that setting-upon that sets-up man, [that] challenges him forth, to reveal [to himself] the real” (QT, 302). Enframing is not a tool or an apparatus, but (and this is the crucial point in Heidegger’s argument) the very condition of possibility for the truth of the real to be revealed, poetically, to man.”

Paul Nadal
Marlow

Sport climber
OSLO
Topic Author's Reply - Mar 24, 2015 - 01:03pm PT

Prof. Edgar Schein - Key note speech part 1
[Click to View YouTube Video]
donini

Trad climber
Ouray, Colorado
Mar 24, 2015 - 04:36pm PT
Do it...if you like it, do it alot. That, and a little natural talent for the skill at hand will lead to it's acquisition.
Messages 1 - 20 of total 21 in this topic << First  |  < Previous  |  Show All  |  Next >  |  Last >>
Return to Forum List
 
Our Guidebooks
Check 'em out!
SuperTopo Guidebooks


Try a free sample topo!

 
SuperTopo on the Web

Recent Route Beta